APITOXINA & HERPES
1: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;19(3):187-94.
Evaluation of the inactivation of infectious Herpes simplex virus by host-defense peptides.
Yasin B, Pang M, Turner JS, Cho Y, Dinh NN, Waring AJ, Lehrer RI, Wagar EA.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA
A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide microplate assay was adapted to screen for the ability of 20 host-defense peptides to inactivate herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. The procedure required minimal amounts of material, was reproducible, and was confirmed with standard antiviral testing techniques. In screening tests, with the exception of melittin, a highly cytotoxic and hemolytic peptide found in bee venom, the alpha-helical peptides in our test panel (magainins, cecropins, clavanins, and LL-37) caused little viral inactivation. Several beta-sheet peptides (defensins, tachyplesin, and protegrins) inactivated one or both viruses, sometimes with remarkable selectivity. Two peptides were identified as having antiviral activity against both viruses, indolicidin (a tryptophan-rich peptide from bovine neutrophils) and brevinin-1 (a peptide found in frog skin). The antiviral activity of these two peptides was confirmed with standard antiviral assays. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of brevinin-1 was maintained after reduction and carboxamidomethylation, procedures that abolished its otherwise prominent hemolytic and cytotoxic effects.
PMID: 10795591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: Virology. 1993 Oct;196(2):548-56.
Role of the Na+,K+ pump in herpes simplex type 1-induced cell fusion: melittin causes specific reversion of syncytial mutants with the syn1 mutation to Syn+ (wild-type) phenotype.
Baghian A, Kousoulas KG.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine,
To evaluate the importance of the Na+,K+ pump and ionic gradients in virus-induced cell fusion, we investigated the effects of melittin, a 26 amino acid bioactive peptide found in honey bee venom, on cell fusion caused by HSV-1 syncytial mutants. Melittin inhibited fusion of Vero cells caused by HSV-1 mutant viruses mP(MP),